Bolivia Paris Agreement

The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 197 parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of the Parties in Paris and agreed on 12 December 2015. [2] [3] The agreement was signed at UN Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017 by states and regional economic integration organisations parties to the UNFCCC (convention). [4] The agreement stated that it would only enter into force if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015)[5] ratify, accept, approve or adhere to the agreement. [6] On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris Climate Agreement. [9] 175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing. [10] [11] On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016. The ratification by the European Union has achieved a sufficient number of contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.

[24] Under Article 28, the effective withdrawal date of the United States is the fastest possible date, given that the agreement entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had decided to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be informed immediately (the UNFCCC came into force in 1994 for the United States) and come into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has a legal right to do so. [25] The formal declaration of resignation could only be submitted after three years of implementation of the agreement for the United States in 2019. [26] [27] The analysis focuses on Bolivia`s participation in the 6th Conference of the Parties (The Hague) as it has shown most of the negotiating and preparedness capabilities. This part of the analysis includes the formulation of the Bolivian position, the consultation process on the definition of the position, the characteristics of the delegation, the negotiating techniques used, the work within coalitions of like-minded countries and the reactions after The Hague. The study assesses the net benefits/losses for the country and the potential impact on the fight against poverty as a result of the work carried out under this agreement. The report concludes with a debate on constraints, lessons for improving practices and policy implications, and draws attention to some research issues.

Since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 at the latest, negotiations on a global climate treaty have developed a dual priority: mitigating and adapting to climate change. However, there are still wide differences of opinion on what exactly cbdr means, particularly with regard to climate change aid. At the heart of the conflict over climate change is the fact that there is no longer a clear distinction between developed and developing countries, as in 1992. Today, countries such as China are technically “developing countries” and do not share the same obligations as other Western countries under the Convention, even though they occupy the central state as the largest emitters of the future (Kanter 2009).